Menopause is associated with bone loss, particularly at the distal radius, in black South African women: Findings from the Study of Women Entering and in Endocrine Transition (SWEET).


Menopause transition is associated with accelerated bone loss, though data are limited from sub-Saharan African (SSA). Our objective was to describe bone density, geometry and estimated strength in women by menopause status and to explore whether patterns differed within those living with HIV. METHODS: Radius and tibia peripheral QCT data were collected for Black South African women (n = 430) aged 40-61 years with verified menopause and HIV status. pQCT outcomes were distal 4 % radius and tibia total cross-sectional area (CSA), total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and compressive bone strength (BSIc); proximal 66 % radius and 38 % tibia cortical vBMD, total CSA, cortical thickness, and Stress-strain Index (SSI). Linear regression assessed associations between pre, peri-, and postmenopausal groups and pQCT outcomes adjusting for age, height, and weight, and then stratified by HIV status. Mean [95%CI] and tests for trend (p-trend) across menopausal groups are presented. RESULTS: Women were mean (SD) age 49.2 (5.3) years, with a body mass index (BMI) of 32.4 (6.3) m/kg(2), and 18 % were living with HIV. After adjustment, later menopause stage was associated with lower 4 % radius total mean [95%CIs] vBMD (premenopause: 345.7 [335.8,355.5] vs. postmenopause: 330.1 [322.7,337.6] mg/cm(3), p-trend = 0.017) and BSIc (premenopause: 0.39 [0.37,0.41] vs. postmenopause: 0.36 [0.35,0.37] g(2)/cm(4); p-trend = 0.012). Similar trends were observed at the 66 % radius for cortical vBMD (premenopause: 1146.8 [1138.9,1154.6] vs. postmenopause: 1136.1 [1130.1,1142.0] mg/cm(3); p-trend = 0.028) and cortical thickness (premenopause: 2.01 [1.95,2.06] vs. postmenopause: 1.93 [1.89,1.98] mm; p-trend = 0.036). After stratification by HIV status a similar patten was observed in women with HIV (cortical vBMD premenopause: 1152.9 [1128.5,1177.2] mg/cm(3) vs. postmenopause: 1123.6 [1106.0,1141.2] mg/cm(3), p-trend = 0.048). Total CSA varied little by menopause or HIV status at either radius sites; few differences were found at the tibia. CONCLUSION: In black South African women, menopause is associated with lower bone density and strength at the distal radius, a common site of osteoporotic fracture, in addition to lower cortical density and thickness at the proximal radius. Although the sample size was small, following stratification by HIV, women living with HIV had evidence of lower cortical density across menopause stages, unlike those without HIV. These findings raise concern for the incidence of Colles’ fractures in postmenopausal women in South Africa; longitudinal studies of fracture incidence and implications of living with HIV are required.

Autor: O Breasail M, Gregson CL, Norris SA, Madanhire T, Jaff N, Crowther NJ, Micklesfield LK, Ward KA

Organisation: Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom; MRC Nutrition and Bone Health Research Group, Clifford Allbutt Building, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 OA

Jahr: 2022

GID: 5787

Erstellt am: 26.09.2022

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